Testicular Biopsy for Diagnosis of Male Infertility

Male infertility can be thoroughly evaluated using several diagnostic techniques. From semen analysis to sperm morphology, as well as several blood tests for hormones such as testosterone. A testicular biopsy is a surgical procedure where a small sample of testicular tissue is removed from the scrotum. It is then examined under a microscope for the presence of sperm. Unlike Testicular sperm extraction, which harvests testicular tissue for the sperm within, testicular biopsy is a diagnostic modality. It is usually warranted when two conditions are present: There is no sperm in the man’s semen. Test results for hormones are normal. Contrary Continue reading →

Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE)

Testicular sperm extraction is a surgical procedure for collecting small specimens of testicular tissue and extracting viable sperm cells. Like other microsurgical procedures, such as micro-epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) and percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA), this procedure is done in an outpatient setting. However, there are some differences. Instead of undergoing general anesthesia, the donor is placed under local anesthesia with sedation. Also, in TESE, the sperm cells are harvested from the testes themselves, not the epididymis. Men who have been diagnosed with azoospermia, caused by the absence of the vas deferens, or due to prior vasectomy, are good candidates Continue reading →

Micro-epididymal Sperm Aspiration

Micro-epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA) is an outpatient microsurgical procedure for collecting sperm in men who have an absence of sperm in their ejaculate, generally known as azoospermia. There may be several reasons for this, such as poor motility or blockage of the male reproductive duct. Azoospermia can be seen in men who have been diagnosed with absence of the vas deferens, which occurs in cystic fibrosis. However, cases where such a blockage occurs intentionally, such as a prior vasectomy, are far more common. Similar to other assisted reproductive therapies, micro-epididymal sperm aspiration may be suitable for couples who have been Continue reading →

Hormonal Tests Including Pregnancy Test

Hormonal tests are an integral element in female fertility testing and assisted reproductive therapies. They are also an important part of the initial examination for couples who have been trying to get pregnant for at least one year, but to no avail. These tests are useful since they help determine causes of infertility, and whether infertility may be due to other health conditions. Luteinizing hormone – produced by the pituitary gland, this hormone is responsible for regulating a woman’s menstrual cycle and ovulation. Normally it increases rapidly just before ovulation, midway through a menstrual cycle. Testing for luteinizing hormone is Continue reading →

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination, or IUI, is a procedure in which a man’s sperm is placed directly into woman’s uterus. The woman’s eggs and ovaries are not affected or manipulated in this process. The goal of IUI is to facilitate fertilization by increasing the number of sperm that can reach the fallopian tubes, therefore increasing the chance of fertilization and subsequent pregnancy. Couples who have struggled unsuccessfully for at least one year to get pregnant elect to undergo intrauterine insemination due to a variety of health conditions. These conditions are often low sperm count, decreased sperm mobility, abnormally thick cervical mucus, cervical Continue reading →